Vitamin A in birds diet. Indications of Vitamin A deficiency known as Hypovitaminois A are: A bird’s inability to resist respiratory infections and shorten the duration of illnesses. Hypovitaminois A can mean a susceptibility to increased eye illnesses, skin diseases, and changes in the mucous membrane. The lack of Vitamin A can lead to colds and other problems with the bird’s upper respiratory system. A lack of Vitamin A can also cause damage to the outer layers of the skin and linings of the respiratory, digestive, and reproduction organs. Vitamin A deficient birds are more susceptible to problems associated with mites and fleas, which can in turn lead to infections and diseases. A Vitamin A deficiency can also lead to blood disorders and problems with urine acid in young and older birds. An adult bird with a Vitamin A deficiency can also result in poor breeding performances with poorly formed eggs lacking a hard shell and in advanced cases fertility problems and sterility.
There are a variety of symptoms of vitamin D deficiency in cage birds, most of them related to calcium. In addition to the soft bones of rickets, in birds thin-shelled and soft-shelled eggs will be a prominent symptom. Clutches that are smaller than normal will also be a symptom of too little vitamin D in the diet. Vitamin D3 is crucial to the absorption of calcium in the digestive tract, and any problem with the absorption of calcium may be caused by vitamin D deficiency. Also, eggs that lack sufficient vitamin D will fail to hatch.The additional vitamin D in the diethad made the hens’ absorption and utilization of calcium so much easier that the clutch size had increased dramatically.Vitamin D3 is especially critical to immune health. Individuals who have vitamin D blood levels lower had upper respiratory tract infections as those with higher levels. Clinical studies have validated vitamin D’s ability to reduce the risk of colds and flu. To insure optimal vitamin D status, recently most health experts are advocating daily dosages of D3.The most common health problems associated with vitamin D deficiency are: weakened immune systems / susceptibility to diseases, soft bones, bent keels, splayed legs, abnormal beak development, reproductive problems (egg binding, soft-shell eggs, dying chicks) as well as seizures and, to a lesser extend, Stargazing (twisted back) growth.
Vitamin E: Alpha-Tocophery is generally needed by birds in larger amounts than by mammals. Vitamin E unlike other fat soluble vitamins is not stored in the body for long periods. Vitamin E deficiency symptoms are: Degeneration of heart and skeleton muscles, infertility, liver necroses, problems with flight and uncoordinated and trembling movements, increased susceptibility to diseases. Much as with Vitamin A deficiencies, the breeding impulse and vitality is greatly reduced, embryos development can be disturbed, and a large percentage of the embryos can die. Vitamin E is an active anti-oxidant that prevents the oxidation of fat compounds, Vitamin A, some Vitamin Cs, and Selenium. It enhances the activity of Vitamin A and is important for vasodilator development and as an anti-coagulant agent. The need depends also on the content of insatiate fatty acids in the food. Fish flour, other fat additives, in addition, Lebertran in the feed increases Vitamin E. The vitamin is plentifully in germinating grain (spouts) sunflower seeds and in green leafy vegetables (spinach and kale; greens [beet, collard, mustard, turnip]) and sweet potatoes. Vitamin E deficiencies are easily voided by quickly treating the symptoms.
Vitamin K3 (Menadione) is a manmade synthetic form of the vitamin. The body uses Vitamin K to control blood clotting and is essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls the clotting. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, this can then be stored in the liver. It is involved in bone formation and repair. There are some indications that Vitamin K may decrease the incidence or severity of osteoporosis and slow bone loss.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) leads to an impaired digestive system and general weakness, cramps, a nodding of the head, an inability of grasp and hold onto perches with its toesand a weakness on one or both legs. In advanced cases, the legs can become splayed and permanently damaged. However, if diagnosed before the onset of damages to the bird’s nervous system and B1 is supplemented in the diet most problems can be quickly reverse in a very short time.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) as with B1 results in poor growth and achromatosis (problems feather development and a lack of feather pigmentation), a weakness of the legs leading to a constant squatting on the heals of the feet, and problems with diarrhea resulting in dehydration.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin, Pyidoxal, and Pyridoxamin) results in the loss of body mass, the bird’s ability to move smoothly in flight, and steadiness on its feet. Other effects are the liver problems and eye infections, along with problems with egg quality.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is not found in large enough quantities in green vegetables and grain seeds to meet a bird’s requirements. Birds generally obtain B12 from micro-organisms in the intestine that synthesize it. Fanciers will need to insure that the feed they provide their Budgies has a supplement of B12 or face possible problems with poor growth and feather development, and increased bad eggs and increased chick mortality. When needed a recommended dosage is 0.05 mg. per kg. in the feed daily.
Although Choline is not by strict definition a vitamin, it is an essential nutrient and generally associated with B Complex. Choline is needed by the bird’s digestive system for the synthesis of cholesterol.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin [also called Nicotinic Acid] and Niacinamide called Nicotinamide results in poor growth and feather development too, as well as dry and scaly skin. It is one of eight water-soluble B vitamins and needed to form body fat from carbohydrates.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) results in poor feather development and a high percentage of chicks with Pantothenic Acid deficiencies fail to grow sufficient body mass and mortality around the three week of age mark. Pantothenic Acid is essential for bird’s enzyme system to absorb Choline in its digestive system.
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) reduces the generation of red blood corpuscles carrying oxygen to the organs causing the bird to become anemic and listless. Plumage can become incomplete and not fully developed. A side effect is also the higher percentage of Embryo deaths/bad eggs. Only a portion of the necessary Vitamin B9 requirements are produced by a bird’s intestines.
Vitamin C: With the enzyme L-gulonolactine in a Budgie’s liver they synthesize Vitamin C during the conversion of glucose. Also, Budgies generally produce sufficient amounts of Vitamin C in their kidneys. Vitamin C is important to Budgies in that it helps them deal with stress and fight off infections and diseases. In an indirect fashion, proper amounts of C ensure good breeding and assisting in the calming of birds when changes in their environment occur. Fresh fruit is a good source of Vitamin C. As with some other vitamin, excess amounts of Vitamin C are flushed from the bird’s body reducing the concern for over dosages. Vitamin C is essential for the conversion of Vitamin D3 to its metabolically form.
Vitamin H: Vitamin H (Biotin also referred to as Iotin) was discovered nearly forty years ago and considered part of the B complex group of vitamins, Biotin is necessary for the metabolism of Carbohydrates, fats, and Amino Acids (the building blocks of Protein and basic life). A water-soluble vitamin produced in the body by Micro-organisms in intestines and obtained from food. Biotin deficiencies are rear, but can include:Feather loss, scaly and cracking skin, swollen tongue, dry eyes, loss of appetite, and increased numbers of newborns with birth defects. Biotin is required by all organisms, but can only be synthesized by bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, and some plant species. Biotin is attached at the active site of four important enzymes, known as carboxylases.Each carboxylase catalyzes an essential metabolic reaction. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the binding of bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA to form Malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is required for the synthesis of fatty acids. Pyruvate carboxylase is a critical enzyme in gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from sources other than carbohydrates, for example, amino acids and fats. Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes an essential step in the metabolism of Leucine, an essential Amino Acid.
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes essential steps in the metabolism of Amino Acids, Cholesterol, and fatty acids with an odd number of Carbon molecules. Antibiotic use may decrease Biotin levels by destroying the bacteria in the intestines that produces Biotin. A good source for Biotin is nuts and legumes [beans], and oat bran.
Choline chloride is mass-produced and is an important additive in feed especially for chickens where it accelerates growth.
Lysine, or L-lysine, is an essential amino acid, meaning it is necessary for health, but the body cannot make it. You have to get lysine from food or supplements. Amino acids like lysine are the building blocks of protein. Lysine is important for proper growth, and it plays an essential role in the production of carnitine, a nutrient responsible for converting fatty acids into energy and helping lower cholesterol. Lysine appears to help the body absorb calcium, and it plays an important role in the formation of collagen, a substance important for bones and connective tissues including skin, tendons, and cartilage.
Dl- Methionine is called an amino acid, a building block of proteins in our bodies. Methionine is found in meat, fish, and dairy products. Methionine plays an important role in many cell functions.
L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that helps the body make proteins and certain brain-signaling chemicals.body changes L-tryptophan into a brain chemical called serotonin. Serotonin helps control your mood and sleep.
L-threonine is an essential amino acid,meaning that it cannot be synthesized in the body. The chemical formula for L-threonine is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3, and its DNA codons are ACA, ACC, ACG and ACU. L-threonine is one of the 20 common proteinogenic amino acids, which are used to construct proteins.
Cysteine is an amino acid, a building block of proteins that are used throughout the body. When taken as a supplement, it is usually in the form of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The body makes this into cysteine and then into glutathione, a powerful antioxidant.
Antioxidants fight free radicals, which are harmful compounds in the body that damage cell membranes and DNA. Researchers think free radicals play a role in aging as well as the development of a number of health problems, including heart disease and cancer.
Arginine, also known as L-arginine, is involved in a number of different functions in the body. They include:
Helping the kidneys remove waste products from the body
Maintaining immune and hormone function
Dilates and relaxes the arteries
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